Tirtha Prabandha, Tirumala Kshetra & Jayatirtha

My question to NS & My reply:

Chiran Chidambarji’s Query:

NS’s response:

I definitely owe a lot to the participants in terms of explaining the missing links as my reply was incomplete.

Referring to my reply in the online group, I wish to add the following points.

Tiruvengada Kottam:


Historically speaking, the present day areas such as Chandragiri, Kalahasti and other surrounding areas were part of a revenue division called Tiruvengadakottam. The earliest known reference to this name was found in Pallavas’ reign. Since the time of Pallavas of Prakruta charter and up to the end of Vijayanagara Empire, this revenue division continued to exist with little or no modifications to its boundaries. Thus, historically the whole downhill and plains of this part has been referred to as Tiruvengadakottam.

Geographical references inform that Suvarnamukhi originates in Chandragiri hills which is again part of Seshachala hill range belonging to the extensive Eastern Ghats.  Suvarnamukhi travels a distance of 130 KMs approximately and has very small catchment area of roughly around 3,000 sq.KMs . It finally drains itself into Bay of Bengal (Purva Samudra). It doesn’t have any major tributaries except a small riverlet called Kalyani river which originates in Tirumala hills but immediately merges into Suvarnamukhi at Tondavada (Agastheeshwaralaya).

According to Puranas Suvarnamukhi is one of the holiest rivers of Bharata Desha. I have collected following shlokas from 4 Puranas that are available to me.


Bhavishyottara Purana, 2 – 40, 41, 42










Markandeya Purana (2-67)






Skanda Purana 2-1-28, 77, 78







Brahma Purana 1-6,7






Brahma Purana 1-46, 47







It is interesting to note that in all the Puranic texts, Tirumala has been described as a holy place located on the banks of Swarnamukhi. But, at present, Suvarnamukhi doesn’t flow in downhill (Tirupati) & neither flowing down from uphill (Tirumala).

As I have written in the Facebook posting, there are available the river tracts in and around Tirupati that confirm the flow of Suvarnamukhi quite close to Tirumala hills. Hereunder are some of the photos:

Agastheeshwara Temple, Tondavada standing on the banks of Suvarnamukhi


Mandapam in the middle of the dried river bed of S. Mukhi – Located opposite to Agastheeshwara temple, Tondavada



In this video link you can see the Suvarnamukhi flowing very close to our house in Tirhchanoor:



All these evidences confirm the fact that Sri Vadiraja wrote the shloka on Swarnamukhi during his visit to Tirumala. Thereby, he maintained his oath of describing only those kshetras/murthis that he visited.


The Concept of Vyuha in Tirtha Prabandha:


Now, turning to the query raised by Chiran Chidambarji, let me explain the Vyuha concept that I believe to be embedded in Tirtha Prabandha, more particularly in Tirumala shlokas.

It is evident that the Purana shlokas mentioned above have always given the location details of Tirumala by keeping Swarnamukhi as the closest landmark. Thus the shlokas are establishing an inseparable link between Tirumala and Swarnamukhi.

In Bhavishyottara Purana , Bakula leaves for Narayanapuram and on the way meets up with the maids of Padmavathi at Agastya Ashrama i.e. Tondavada. Here Vedavyasa writes as “हय मारुह्य बकुला सुवर्णमुखरीं तदा” which means that as soon as Bakula descended Tirumala hills, she reached Swarnamukhi river on which banks Agasthya consecrated a Shiva temple (तीर्त्वा अगस्त्याश्रमम् प्राप्य….शिवालये शिवं द्रष्टुं).

In addition to this, Shrinivasa in the guise of Koravanji when gives out soothsaying to Dharanidevi He says “श्री वॆंकटगिरीशं च कालहस्तीश्वरं हरम्thus giving a hint that Venkatagiri & Kalahasthi are part of same Kshetra.

With this background, I have come to an understanding that the other reason for Rajaru to leave out Kalahasteeshwara or Kapileshwara or Agastheeshwara is that all these Shaiva kshetras are not exclusive from Tirumala kshetra but part & parcel of it. In other words, it can be said that these temples are like “Upa Alayas” to Tirumala temple.

As far as the Pramana for the Vyuha’s expanse as asked by Chiran Chidambarji, I don’t know the exact answer. But by taking the Purana shlokas quoted above as Pramana, I am of the opinion that the distance between Swarnamukhi River and Tirumala could be the average span of a Vyuha.

Here there is a need for experts’ help as there are differences in the Purana shlokas about the distance between the river and the hill. For e.g. Bhavishyottara gives the distance as 21/2   Krosha (क्रॊशार्थद्वय मात्रकॆ) and Skaanda puts it at 1 Krosha (सुवर्णमुखरी तीरॆ चॊत्तरॆ क्रॊश मात्रकॆ). If I am not wrong, 1 Krosha is roughly around 3.5 KM and the same could be taken the lowest span of a Vyuha.

As this calculation is beyond my capability, I leave it for the learned ones to figure out.



At the end, both Vedavyasa and Vadirajaru are on the same page as far as Tirumala, Kalahasti and Swarnamukhi are considered. All these three form part of the same Kshetra.

On the same lines, it can be safely concluded that Rajaru identified Nava Brindavana as the Vyuha for Madhva World (मध्व सिद्धांत धरणी) in which he saw Jayatirtharu being in a blissful mood, enjoined by other Diggajas. Thus there is no way that Rajaru did an assumed act of “Smarana” either at Tirumala or at Anegundi.


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