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Nearly two months ago, I have written two articles about the polemical argument purportedly held between Sri Akshobhya and Sri Vidyaranya in Mulabagal town. These two articles have attempted to fact-check the said event and have tried to analyse whether such event ever took place?

After reading considerable amount of literature with for and against arguments and by undertaking an independent study of the inscriptions and scriptures, I have understood that there is no room for such event to happen and the said Vidyaranya is not the Madhava Vidyaranya of Shringeri Peetha. Interested readers may please read the articles by clicking the following links:

  1. Akshobhya - Vidyaranya Debate - Myths & Facts (As understood by me)
  2. Akshobhya Vidyaranya Debate - Further Inputs

The present one is the 3rd in the series and probably the last one as well. Should I get some clues and evidences, I may add couple of more articles to this series but as of now this would be the final one.

New Evidence:

In order to come to a logical conclusion about the truth in Akshobhya-Vidyaranya debate, I have extensively used various Archeological and Epigraphic records and the books written for and against the purported debate.

Later, I have tried to look for some clues from Dasa Sahitya as it has been the most widely used tool by the Dvaita School to spread its message in the masses. In this connection, I have referred to the kritis on Sri Jayatirtha written by the following:

  1. Sri Vadiraja Tirtha
  2. Sri Purandara Dasa
  3. Sri Kanada Dasa



Generations of Madhvas have always sincerely believed that in the early days of Vijayanagara Kingdom there was a famous disputation between the two stalwarts of Advaita and Dvaita, Sri Vidyaranya and Sri Akshobhya Tirtha, where the famous Vishishtadvaita scholar Sri Vedanta Desikar was the neutral umpire and victory was wonby Dvaita. Apparently there was no rejection of the very existence of the event in earlier days, even by such great Advaita stalwarts like Sri Ananthakrishna Shastri or any other pontiffs. In recent days, however Advaita has predictably reacted adversely and has offered many arguments to support their own position that such a disputation never took place.

The confusion has been actually compounded by many fancy stories written much later about the so called disputation/victory where extreme positions have been offered by both sides – including a victory for Advaita. Therewere also a very few Madhva scholars who supported the view that the account was fictitious. The issue is considered as a question of prestige of the two schools and it is difficult to sift out the truths and realities from the fanciful accounts and blind loyalties towards one’s own system inherited from birth.

               In the previous article I have talked about the peculiar aspect of ‘Dharmik Continuum’ that prevailed throughout the existence of Vijayanagara Empire. Actually, that write-up was my impulsive reaction, so to say, about this strange feature of maintaining and upholding the Dharmik values. I feel that no historian of any denomination has touched upon this topic and has ever mentioned it in his/her research!

                I am making such strong claim as I have found yet another great example of this Dharmik Continuum phenomenon and I am sure that the readers too shall acknowledge my feelings. The Belur inscriptions that would be presented in this articles can stand tall in showcasing the Dharmik side of Hindu kings. The inscription of Harihara II can be considered as the ‘crest jewel’ of these Belur inscriptions.

           The mighty Vijayanagara Empire that flourished from c.1336 to c.1646 has been held and ruled by four dynasties – (1) Sangama (2) Saluva (3) Tulu and (4) Aravidu.

        We can read some blood curdling stories from Vijayanagara history on how the successive dynasties snatched the power from the outgoing one. Sometimes, the members of the ruling royal family have seem to be committing heinous murders of their kith and kin only to plant themselves on the royal seat. I have borrowed the following passage from Robert Sewell to describe this horrification saga:

“It will be seen farther on that in almost every case the kingdom was racked with dissension on the demise of the sovereign, and that year after year the members of the reigning family were subjected to violence and murder in order that one or other of them might establish himself as head of the State.”

[Vijayanagara - Forgotten Empire by R. Sewell]